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Botanic Garden of Indian Republic, Noida

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1.Economic arboretum
The section have been planned thematically on the basis of the economic products yielded by the trees like timber, gums and resin, spices, fruits, medicines, dyes, oil, etc. and are located at different places. Some are of socio-economic value, with local uses either for domestic use or simply revered from a religious perspective. There are 68 no. of plants present in the EPS section.

2. Medicinal Plants Garden
The Ayur Vatika and Charak Udyan, which displays over 105 medicinal plants (herbs, shrubs and trees), is divided into eight sectors, laid out thematically according to their therapeutic uses in treatment of various ailments generally in the Ayurvedic system of medicine (digestive system, blood and circulatory system, musculoskeletal system, skin diseases, urino-genital system, respiratory system, inflammation/fever and nervous system. Adjacent to this “CharakUdyan” is being developed to display those species used for the cure of ailments of respective human organs. There are 105 no. of plants present in the Medicinal section.

3. Cactus/Succulent plant Section
A small Cactus/Sacculent Section for growing different varieties of cacti and succulents is being maintained. There are 20no. of plants present in the succulent section. There is a small cactus house constructed for the introduction of Cactus in the section.

4.Aquatic Garden
Presently two water bodies of different sizes and depths are developed to replicate aquatic ecosystems. These exhibit the aquatic plants of the region. there is plan to build more water bodies and swampy areas in the entire garden in the future which will be used for introduction of plants from different regions of India.

5. Rose Garden
It is situated near the entrance of the garden, consisting of nearly 75 hybrid varieties of roses, introduced from various location of India and maintained in circular/rectangular beds. the area comprises of ………….

6. Peripheral green arboretum (based on various forest types)

      a. Zone 1

      b. Zone 2/ Tropical dry evergreen forests 

The Tropical dry evergreen forests isan ecoregion of southeastern India. The ecoregion includes the coastal region behind the Coromandel Coast on the Bay of Bengal, between the Eastern Ghats and the sea. It covers eastern Tamil Nadu, part of Puducherry and south eastern Andhra Pradesh. The original vegetation of the ecoregion consisted of forests with an understory of evergreen trees and an emergent canopy of taller deciduous trees, including Sal (Shorearobusta), Albiziaamara, and Chloroxylonswietenia. Intensive human use of the forests over the centuries has mostly eliminated the deciduous canopy species, and the ecoregion's remaining forests are now characterized by areas of leathery-leaved evergreen forest, with a relatively low (10-meter) closed canopy. Predominant species are Manilkarahexandra, Mimusopselengi, Ceylon ebony (Diospyrosebenum), strychnine tree (Strychnosnux-vomica), Eugenia spp., Drypetessepiaria, and Flacourtiaindica. A few small enclaves of deciduous Sal forest exist, but are under intensive human pressure.Puthupet forest (12°05’702”N – 79° 87’ 148” E) is predominantly Memecylonumbellatum,with Pterospermumcanescens, Diospyrosebenum, Drypetessepiaria, Aglaiaelaeagnoidea, Pongamiapinnata, Azadirachtaindica, Walsuratrifoliolata, Calophylluminophyllum, and Albizia amara.6-8 percent of the ecoregion remains in forest, which is found in isolated pockets. Most of the ecoregion's forests have been degraded into tropical dry evergreen scrublands, characterized by thorny species such as Ziziphusglaberrima, Dichrostachyscinerea, Catunaregamspinosa, and Carissa spinarum.Acacia catechu, Albiziaodoratissima, Anogeissuslatifolia, Bauhinia acuminata, Brideliaretusa, Buteamonosperma, Sennasulfurea(=Cassia glauca), Cordiasinensis(=Cordiarothii), Dalbergialanceolaria, Dalbergialatifolia, Dolichandronefalcata, Feronialimonia, Guettardaspeciosa, Haldinacordifolia, Hardwickiabinata, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Holopteleaintegrifolia, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Madhucaindica, Madhucalongifolia, Madhucaneriifolia, Manilkarahexandra, Oroxylumindicum, Parkiabiglandulosa, Peltophorumpterocarpum, Pithecellobiumdulce, Pterocarpusmarsupium, Pterospermumxylocarpum, Sapindusemarginatus, Sapindusmukorossi, Schleicheraoleosa, Shorearobusta, Simaroubaglauca, Spathodeacampanulata, Spondiaspinnata, Sterculiafoetida, Strychnosnux-vomica, Swieteniamacrophylla, Syzygiumcumini, Terminaliaarjuna, Terminaliabellerica, Terminaliachebula, Terminaliatomentosa

c. Zone 3/ Moist deciduous forests

Moist deciduous forests mixed with evergreen elements. The annual rainfall is above 200 cm and the temperature is 26-27°C with dry period only for a short time . As rain is plenty, these forests are also called as rain forests. When compared with other areas dry period is more in Andhra Pradesh and therefore these are called as partial evergreen forests. The vegetation is dense and fast growing. The plants grow to height of 50-60 m and more or less umbrella shaped with evergreen leaves. Woody lianas and epiphytes are abundant. This type of vegetation is prevalent in moist valleys and on hills at about 800 m altitude. Simlipal forests, Atai, Mahendragiri, Banguru forests and parts of Ganjam and Koraput districts, Sapparla, Dharakonda, Galikonda, Tanjavanam, Minumuluru, some areas near Anantagiri, Nulakamaddi, Maredumilli areas etc. show this type of forest. Trees such as Micheliachampaca, Mangiferaindica, Artocarpuslakoocha, Dilleniapentagyna, Firmianacolorata, Brideliatomentosa, Xyliaxylocarpa etc. form the top canopy. Small trees like Mesuanagassarium, Polyalthiacerasoids, Macarangapeltata, Pittosporumnapaulense, Phoebe lanceolata, Murrayakoenigii, Dipterocarpus, Pterospermumetc. form the middle canopy. Albizialebbeck, Anogeissuslatifolia, Brideliaretusa, Cassia fistula, Sennasulfurea(=Cassia glauca), Dalbergialatifolia, Dolichandronefalcata, Grewiatiliaefolia, Hardwickiabinata, Holopteleaintegrifolia, Kigeliaafricana, Psidiumguajava, Pterocarpusmarsupium, Pterospermumacerifolium, Salvadoraperscia, Schleicheraoleosa, Simaroubaglauca, Sapindusmukorossi, Spathodeacampanulata, Syzygiumcumini, Terminaliaalata, Terminaliaarjuna, Terminaliabellirica, Terminaliachebula, Terminaliacrenulata, Thespesiapopulnea, Trewianudiflora

 

 

d. Zone 4/ Tropical deciduous forests

Tropical deciduous forests are defined by the presence of broad-leaved tree species and climatic conditions that include a long dry season, in addition to their tropical latitude. Sometimes referred to as tropical dry forests, these ecosystems rely on cyclical drought to precipitate the shedding of leaves. The average temperature of deciduous forests is 50°F and annual rainfall averages 30 to 60 inches. Deciduous forests must have at least 120 days without frost. This period can extend to 250 days in some tropical and subtropical deciduous forests. Tropical and subtropical deciduous forests have a very tight temperature range between 68°F to 77°F. This is in stark contrast to temperate deciduous forests, which have a far wider range of -22°F to 86°F. Precipitation in temperate deciduous forests ranges 30 to 60 inches per year, while annual rainfall can be over 80 inches in tropical and subtropical deciduous forests. Research shows climate change is altering the way in which deciduous forests respond to temperature, precipitation and drought. It is found on the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats, eastern coastal plains, eastern plateaus, Himalayan foothills and in some parts of the Satluj-Ganga plains. In India Tropical Deciduous Forests are found in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Orissa and parts of Maharashtra.Oaks, beeches, birches, chestnuts, aspens, elms, maples,and basswoods   (or lindens) are the dominant trees in mid-latitude deciduous forests. They vary in shape and height and form dense growths that admit relatively little light through the leafy canopy. Shrubs are found primarily near clearings and forest edges, where more light is available, and herbaceous flowering plants are abundant within the forest in the spring, before the trees come into full leaf. Acacia catechu, Acrocarpusfraxinifolius, Albizialebbeck, Anogeissuslatifolia, Brideliaretusa, Holopteleaintegrifolia, Jatrophacurcas, Lagerstroemia hypoleuca, Magnolia champaca, Mitragynaparvifolia, Plumeria alba, Radermacheraxylocarpa, Schleicheraoleosa, Spathodeacampanulata, Spondiaspinnata, Sterculiaurens, Strychnosnux-vomica, Terminaliabellirica, Terminaliatomentosa, Toonaciliata, Wrightiaarborea.

e. Zone 5/ Dry deciduous forests

These forests are formed in areas where the annual rainfall is 20-25 cm, and the moist period is restricted to two to three months only. These are developed from dry deciduous forests due to grazing and browsing. Laterite soils are also one of the factors for the development of Scrub forests. Due to dry conditions trees grow only up to a height of 8-10 m. Herbaceous plants and grasses grow during rainy season. These forests are considered to be a result of intensive biotic interference. Such forests are seen in parts of Ganjam district, some drier areas of Cuddapah and Kurnool districts. Albiziaamara, Acacia chundra, Cassia fistula, Anogeissuslatifolia, Chloroxylonswietenia, Catunaregumspinosa, Euphorbia iirucaW, E. antiquorum, Hugoniamystax etc. are the common trees with shrubs such as Dodonaeaviscosa, Cassia auriculata, Dichrostachyscinerea, Capparisbrevispina, Maytenusemarginatus, Carissa spinarumetc. Acrocarpusfraxinifolius, Albiziaodoratissima, Brideliaretusa, Buchananialanzan , Careyaarborea , Cassia fistula , Dalbergialanceolaria, Dalbergialatifolia, Dalbergiasericea, Desmodiumoojeinense, Gmelinaarborea, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Holopteleaintegrifolia, Madhucaindica, Madhucalongifolia var. Latifolia, Mallotusphilippensis, Mimusopselengi , Mitragynaparvifolia, Pterocarpusmarsupium, Schleicheraoleosa, Spondiaspinnata, Sterculiaurens, Terminaliaalata, Terminaliabellirica

f. Zone 6/Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests are characterized by low variability in annual temperature and high levels of rainfall (>200cm/yr). Occur in climates that are warm year-round, and may receive several hundred centimeters of rain per year, they have long dry seasons which last several months and vary with geographic location. These seasonal droughts have great impact on all living things in the forest. Forest composition is dominated by evergreen, semi-evergreen, and deciduous tree species. Deciduous trees predominate in most of these forests, and during the drought a leafless period occurs, which varies with species type. Because trees lose moisture through their leaves, the shedding of leaves allows trees such as teak and mountain ebony to conserve water during dry periods. The newly bare trees open up the canopy layer, enabling sunlight to reach ground level and facilitate the growth of thick underbrush. Trees on moister sites and those with access to ground water tend to be evergreen. Infertile sites also tend to support evergreen trees. Three tropical dry broadleaf forest eco regions, the East Deccan dry evergreen forests, the Sri Lanka dry-zone dry evergreen forests, and the Southeastern Indochina dry evergreen forests, are characterized by evergreen trees. Tall, broad-leaved evergreen trees are the dominant plants. The densest areas of biodiversity are found in the forest canopy, as it often supports a rich flora of epiphytes, including orchids, bromeliads, mosses and lichens.Albizialebbeck, Albiziaodoratissima, Bauhinia Purpurea, Bauhinia variegata, Brideliaretusa, Brideliaverrucosa, Buchananialanzan, Careyaarborea, Cassia fistula, Dalbergialanceolaria, Dalbergialatifolia, Dalbergiasericea, Desmodiumoojeinense, Elaeocarpus spp., Ficus racemosa (Syn.: Ficus glomerata), Gmelinaarborea, Haldinacordifolia, Helicteresisora, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Holopteleaintegrifolia, Kydiacalycina, Madhucaindica, Madhucalongifolia var. Latifolia, Madhucaneriifolia, Mimusopselengi, Mitragynaparvifolia, Oroxylumindicum, Planchoniaandamanica, Pterocarpusmarsupium, Schleicheraoleosa, Spondiaspinnata, Sterculiafoetida, Sterculiaurens, Swieteniamacrophylla, Syzygiumcumini, Terminaliaarjuna, Terminaliabellirica, Terminaliacrenulata, Toonaciliate

g. Zone 7/ tropical moist evergreen Forest

Like the tropical moist evergreen, this occurs in a restricted area and is found in the Bhabar, the Shiwaliks and the western Himalayas up to about 1000 metres above sea level. Here the rainfall is 50-100 cm (15 to 25 cm in December-March). The summers are sufficiently hot and winters are cold enough for the occurrence of frequent frost. This is a low, practically scrub forest with small evergreen stunted trees and shrubs, including thorny species, herbs and grasses. Olive, acacia modesta and pistacia are the most predominant species. Considerable tracts are covered by dwarf creeping palm Nonnorpops.Aeglemarmelos, Albizialebbeck , Albiziaodoratissima, Anthocephalus sp., Bauhinia Purpurea, Bauhinia variegata, Brideliaretusa, Brideliaverrucosa, Buchananialanzan, Caesariaelliptica, Careyaarborea, Ceibapentandra, Dalbergialanceolaria, Dalbergialatifolia, Dalbergiasericea, Desmodiumoojeinense, Diospyros sp., Dolichandrone sp., Feronialimonia, Gmelinaarborea, Grewiaoptiva, Haldinacordifolia, Jatrophacurcas, Kydiacalycina, Litsea sp., Madhucaindica, Madhucalongifolia var. Latifolia, Madhucaneriifolia, Madhuca sp., Mitragynaparvifolia, Oroxylumindicum, Planchoniaandamanica, Schleicheraoleosa, Spathodeacampanulata, Sterculiaurens, Swieteniamacrophylla, Syzygiumcumini, Terminaliaarjuna, Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia crenulata, Toona ciliata, Trewia nudiflora